Clustering and condensation effects in the electron scattering cross sections from water molecules
Clustering effects in the differential and integral electron scattering cross sections have been investigated by calculating their magnitudes for different water cluster configurations: specifically for the dimer, trimer and tetramer. By assuming that condensation effects can be described in terms of modifications to the single molecule electron scattering cross sections, induced by the surrounding molecules, effective data for liquid water is also provided. Comparison with previous calculations in liquid water has been carried out through the inelastic mean free path, i.e. the mean length between successive inelastic collisions. Although a satisfactory agreement for high energies, above 100 eV, has been found, for lower energies some discrepancies remain and so will be the subject of further investigation. As an example of modelling electron interactions in soft matter, the present set of data has been employed to simulate single electron tracks in liquid water. This was achieved using our Low Energy Particle Track Simulation (LEPTS) code.