A highly efficient polarization-independent output grating coupler was optimized and designed based on silicon-on-insulator used for silica-based hybrid photodetector integration in an arrayed waveguide grating demodulation-integrated microsystem. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method optimizes coupling efficiency by enabling the design of the grating period, duty cycle, etch depth, grating length, and polarization-dependent loss (PDL). The output coupling efficiencies of both the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes are higher than 60% at 1517 to 1605 nm and similar to 67% at around 1550 nm. The designed grating exhibits the desired property at the 3-dB bandwidth of 200 nm from 1450 to 1650 nm and a PDL <0.5 dB of 110 nm from 1513 to 1623 nm. The power absorption efficiency at 1550 nm for TE and TM modes reaches 78% and 70%, respectively. Both the power absorption efficiency of TE mode and that of TM mode are over 70% in a broad band of 1491 to 1550 nm.