Transparent four-channel bilateral control architecture using modified wave variable controllers under time delays
Stability and transparency are two critical indices of bilateral teleoperation systems. The wave variable method is a conservative approach to robustly guarantee system passivity under arbitrary constant time delays. However, the wave-variable-based reflection is an intrinsic problem in this method because it can significantly degrade system transparency and disorient the operator's perception of the remote environment. In order to enhance both the transparency and the stability of bilateral teleoperation systems in the presence of large time delays, a new four-channel (4-CH) architecture is proposed which applies two modified wave-transformation controllers to reduce wave-based reflections. Transparency and stability of the proposed system are analyzed and the improvement in these when using this method is measured experimentally. Results clearly demonstrate that the proposed method can produce high transparency and stability even in the presence of large time delays. Copyright Cambridge University Press 2014.