Congestion pricing with distance tolls: A review and new developments
This paper discusses the optimal toll design problem of cordon-based pricing with nonlinear distance tolls. In the previous studies, however, the cordon-based congestion pricing scheme usually takes the area-based pricing scheme or a flat toll charge method, which are not equitable and efficient. Thus, distance tolls are recently proposed by the researchers to be the new generation of cordon-based pricing. An in-depth review is first provided on the state-of-arts of the addressed topic. Then, using the similar bi-level formulation framework, some formulations are first provided in the context of stochastic user equilibrium, including four different formulations for the stochastic social optimum. 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Liu, Z., Wang, S., Qu, X. & Shiwakoti, N. (2014). Congestion pricing with distance tolls: A review and new developments. CICTP 2014: Safe, Smart, and Sustainable Multimodal Transportation Systems - Proceedings of the 14th COTA International Conference of Transportation Professionals (pp. 3459-3469). United States: American Society of Civil Engineers.