Minimizing broadcast latency and redundancy in asynchronous wireless sensor networks
Asynchronous duty cycle Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols do not require global synchronization because nodes determine their wake-up schedule independently. As a result, these MACs have superior performance to those that employ synchronous duty-cycles in terms of energy expenditure, and advantageously, they are simple to implement. A key limitation is that they do not support efficient broadcast. A node needs to transmit a broadcast packet multiple times via unicast because only a subset of its neighbors may be awake at any given point in time. To address this problem, this paper proposes a centralized and distributed asynchronous broadcast algorithm that achieves minimal broadcast latency and redundancy. In addition, it uses a novel asynchronous MAC protocol that ensures all neighbors of a broadcasting node are awake to receive a broadcast. The performance of our algorithms is evaluated under different network configurations. We show via extensive simulation studies that our algorithms have near optimal network performance in terms of broadcast latency. In particular, compared to OTAB, the best broadcast scheduling algorithm to date, the broadcast latency and transmission times achieved by our designs are 1/5 and 1/2 that of OTAB, respectively.