Publication Details

Heitor, A., Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C., Chiaro, G. & Tasalloti, S. M. A. (2014). Evaluation of the coal wash and steel furnace slag blends as effective reclamation fill for port expansion. In A. Bouazza, S. T. S. Yuen & B. Brown (Eds.), 7th International Congress on Environmental Geotechnics (pp. 972-979). Melbourne, Australia: Engineers Australia.


Coal wash (CW) and steel furnace slag (SFS) are granular waste by-products that result from the operation of the coal mining and the steel industries, respectively. Their effective reuse and recycling as fill materials for earthwork construction, embankments and/or structural fill materials in port expansion projects, is economically attractive and environmentally sustainable because it lessens the need for disposal and sourcing of materials from local quarries. As the need for blending these materials arises from their individual adverse geotechnical characteristics, i.e. swelling and breakage behaviour in SFS and CW, it is important to evaluate the suitability of different mixtures ratios particularly in terms of shear strength and swelling potential to meet various performance criteria for structural fills. This paper presents an experimental study on the compacted SFS and CW source materials and SFS-CW blends prepared on a dry weight basis. First the basic index properties of the mixtures are described and the shear strength and swelling behaviour were examined through drained triaxial compression and free swelling tests according to the expected performance criteria of structural fill materials for port reclamation. The experimental data suggests that while different blends exhibited different stress strain behaviour, they showed some degree of similarity in terms of the stress-strain relationships. Furthermore, the results confirm that the addition of CW reduces the swelling potential of the mixture.