K-stiffness analyses and simulations of wall/embankment with geogrid/metallic reinforcements on hard foundation
A field full scale mechanically stabilized earth wall (MSEW) with metallic strips (MS) and steel wire grids (SWG) and a reinforced soil slope (RSS) with polypropylene (PP), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polyester (PET) were constructed and monitored in hard foundation. Subsequently, 2D finite element simulations were done. Finally, the observed results were confirmed to the K-stiffness working stress method. The behavior of a mechanically stabilized earth wall (MSEW) and a reinforced soil slope (RSS) on hard foundation were observed. The lateral displacements and settlements were very small referring to the metallic reinforced MSEW using steel wire grids and metallic strips. The RSS deform much more because of their lower reinforcement stiffness. The comparisons of the reinforcing materials in terms of stiffness from highest to lowest are metallic strip (MS), steel wire grids (SWG), polypropylene (PP), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polyester (PET). The results of 2D finite element simulation on the results full scale MSEW and the RSS walls by using input parameters obtained from laboratory tests have good agreement with the field measurements. While, the results out of the K-stiffness method for internal design of the reinforcing materials of MSEW and RSS agreed well the field-monitoring data and, therefore, can be recommended for revisions of current conservative design method.