Application of adaptive controllers in teleoperation systems: a survey
A survey of the adaptive controllers deployed to address major inherent control issues in robotic teleoperation systems is carried out. The study in particular explores the application of adaptive controllers in dealing with master and slave model uncertainties, operator and environment force model uncertainties, unknown external disturbances, and communication delay. The reviewed literature is structured according to the objectives envisaged for the adaptive controllers. Meanwhile, some adaptive methods deployed in human-robot interaction, where robots collaborate with people and actively support them, and local robot control, where robot manipulators are controlled at the same location as the operator, are also considered in the review as they can be used in teleoperation with some minor adjustment. A comparison of the strengths, deficiencies, and requirement of methods in each category is carried out. The study indicates that the majority of the proposed methods either require additional hardware such as sensors, or assume an accurate model of the system under study. The possible future research directions are outlined based on the gaps identified in the survey.