Publication Details

M. Alam, K. Muttaqi & D. Sutanto, "A novel approach for ramp-rate control of solar PV using energy storage to mitigate output fluctuations caused by cloud passing," IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 29, (2) pp. 507-518, 2014.


The variability of solar irradiance with a high ramp-rate, caused by cloud passing, can create fluctuation in the PV output. In a weak distribution grid with a high PV penetration, this can create significant voltage fluctuations. Energy storage devices are used to smooth out the fluctuation using traditional moving average control. However, moving average does not control the ramp-rate directly; rather the ramp-rate depends on previous values of PV output. This paper proposes a strategy where the ramp-rate of PV panel output is used to control the PV inverter ramp-rate to a desired level by deploying energy storage (which can be available for other purposes, such as storing surplus power, countering voltage rise, etc.). During the ramping event, the desired ramp-rate is governed by controlling the energy storage based on an inverse relationship with the PV panel output ramp-rate to improve the fluctuation mitigation performance. In contrast to the moving average method, the proposed strategy is able to control the desired ramp-rate independent of the past history of the PV panel output. A dynamic model of the PV-storage integrated system is developed to verify the proposed strategy in the presence of physical device time lags. The proposed strategy is verified using simulation results based on an Australian distribution system. A laboratory experiment is also conducted to validate the concept of the proposed control strategy.



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