The effect of thermomechanical processing conditions on Nb clustering and precipitation in both austenite and ferrite in a Nb-Ti microalloyed steel was studied using electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. A decrease in the deformation temperature increased the Nb-rich precipitation in austenite and decreased the extent of precipitation in ferrite. Microstructural mechanisms that explain this variation are discussed. 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.