This paper presents a holistic analysis for the network design problem of the intermodal liner shipping system. Existing methods for liner shipping network design mainly deal with port-to-port demand. However, most of the demand has inland origins and/or destinations. Thus, it is necessary to cope with inland origin-destination (OD) pairs involving a change in transport mode from inland transportation to maritime shipping. A method is first proposed to convert inland OD demand to port-to-port demand. Then, a framework for global intermodal liner shipping network design is proposed. Finally, the proposed methodology is applied to and numerically verified by a large-scale network example.
Liu, Z., Meng, Q., Wang, S. & Sun, Z. (2014). Global intermodal liner shipping network design. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 61 28-39.