Optimal distance tolls under congestion pricing and continuously distributed value of time
This paper addresses the optimal distance-based toll design problem for cordon-based congestion pricing schemes. The optimal distance tolls are determined by a positive and nondecreasing toll-charge function with respect to the travel distance. Each feasible toll-charge function is evaluated by a probit-based SUE (Stochastic User Equilibrium) problem with elastic demand, asymmetric link travel time functions, and continuously distributed VOT, solved by a convergent Cost Averaging (CA) method. The toll design problem is formulated as a mixed-integer mathematical programming with equilibrium constraints (MPEC) model, which is solved by a Hybrid GA (Genetic Algorithm)-CA method. Finally, the proposed models and algorithms are assessed by two numerical examples.