Container routing in liner shipping
Container paths play an important role in liner shipping services with container transshipment operations. In the literature, link-based multi-commodity flow formulations are widely used for container routing. However, they have two deficiencies: the level of service in terms of the origin-to-destination transit time is not incorporated and maritime cabotage may be violated. To overcome these deficiencies, we first present an operational network representation of a liner shipping network. Based on the network, an integer linear programming model is formulated to obtain container paths with minimum cost. Finally, we add constraints to the integer linear programming model, excluding those paths already obtained, so as to find all the container paths.