Characterization of smear zone due to installation of vertical drains
In this study the characteristics and the extent of the smear zone due the vertical drain installation are investigated using a large-scale consolidometer and a novel mandrel-driving machine capable of working at installation rates in the range of usual practices. The permeability and compressibility of the soil are investigated to determine the extent to which the soil surrounding the PVD had become disturbed. The effects of the vertical drain installation on soil disturbance are analyzed with a new elliptical cavity expansion theory and a finite element analysis. The finite element model has been applied to a case history from the Second Bangkok International Airport in Thailand and proves that the model can be applied to field conditions.