Publication Details

Liu, T. C., Lin, Y. C., Tsai, M. J. & Paas, F. (2011). Split-attention and redundancy effects on mobile learning in physical environments. Computers and education, 56 (2), 172-181.


This study investigated split-attention and redundancy effects in a mobile learningenvironment on leaf morphology of plants as a function of different combinations ofmedia. Eighty-one fifth-grade students were randomly assigned to the following threeconditions: texts with pictures embedded in the mobile device (TP condition); textsembedded in the mobile device and real objects that are outside of the mobile device(TO condition); and texts with pictures embedded in the mobile device and realobjects that are outside of the mobile device (TPO condition). Differences inperformance on comprehension tests and learning efficiency were examined acrossconditions. The TP condition was expected to perform better than the TO conditiondue to a split-attention effect. The TP and TO conditions were expected to performbetter than the TPO condition due to a redundancy effect. The results indicated nodifference between the TP and the TO condition in comprehension and learningefficiency, but the TP and TO conditions performed better than the TPO condition onboth measures. The implications of the results for research and design of mobilelearning environments are discussed.

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