An international study compared methods used to monitor and evaluate the outcomes of university research in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands and elsewhere. It aimed to provide a foundation for improving the evaluation of research and research training in Australian universities. Evaluation methods were considered in terms of their audience, the type of outputs, outcomes or impacts being measured, and the types of research funding support schemes to which they were applied. The study found that Australian research agencies are generally in line with ‘common practice’ in the countries studied, and in some cases in advance of it. The study also identified six main areas where Australia could learn from overseas experience.