Publication Details

McNair-Connolly, C. & Watts, T. (2009). The integration of balanced scorecard models. Cost Management, 23 (5), 5-12.


The entire focus of any balanced scorecard model (BSM) is to ensure that a wide range of events and outcomes are captured in ways useful to decision makers. An important question arises - which decision maker? And, equally important, must this decision maker be intimately familiar with a supposed organizational strategy in order to succeed? The answer to the first question helps us sort the BSMs into subgroups; the answer to the second question suggests that strategy may be as simple as the will of an organization and its members to survive to fight one more day. Building on the work of Lynch and Cross (1991) as well as the model developed by CAM-I, this integrated model combines traditional and modern perspectives on control, both top-down and bottom-up metrics, the internal versus external stakeholder perspective, and the relationship of locus of control (organizational role) with the types of incentives that companies have found to be most useful in creating sustainable performance improvements. It incorporates and remedies all of the identified weaknesses of each model and provides a comprehensive model of performance management that can be adapted to meet the needs of every organization. The Comprehensive Performance Management System (CPMS) is a complex model but one that can be easily translated into a more focused, less complex structure.

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Cost Management