Innovation within the Australian wine industry is at a crossroads. More specifically, under the influence of fundamental paradigm shifts, the objectives, extension and uptake of R&D within the industry’s current innovation framework are being subjected to rather schizophrenic forces. At one level, industry organizations are directing the R&D agenda from within a national, ‘Brand Australia’ context. At another level, the firms that are being serviced by these organizations are demanding region-specific R&D extension in response to global pressure for differentiation and products at higher price-points. This paper will explore these contradictory forces and the degree to which they signal an emergence of innovation lock-in within the industry. It will also propose a model for the effective distribution of R&D at a regional or local level.