This paper examines the affect of national culture on knowledge management for multinational companies (MNCs). MNCs often have to decide whether to standardise or adapt their operations. Previous research has found that national culture has an effect in a range of MNC operations, e.g. human resources, marketing. However, there has been limited research on the influence of culture on knowledge management. We combine these perspectives to develop a conceptual framework that explores the decision to standardise or adapt knowledge management practices based on differences in national culture. The study extends current theoretical perspectives on knowledge management by exploring the cultural conditions that may lead to an adaptation decision, and whether there is a relationship between factors affecting a firm’s decision to standardise or adapt and the outcomes of knowledge management.