Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date


Publication Details

Osvaldo Vallati, Bradley Darlington and Peter Young, xCell Cyclops: the experience of measuring convergence in hard rock mines, Proceedings of the 2024 Resource Operators Conference, University of Wollongong - Mining Engineering, February 2024, 335-340.


This paper presents the xCell Convergence monitoring system that has recently been developed and used to measure convergence in metalliferous hard rock mines. The system is simple to use, easily installed, economical and provides a real-time continuous flow of convergence data directly to the cloud-based application.

The xCell Cyclops is the measuring sensor, it utilises laser technology to measure distance from the mounted location to the opposite side of the tunnel. The xCell Cyclops is directly installed onto an MD, MDX and Kinloc bolts or, using an adapter, any standard threaded bolt. The device is battery powered, wireless and with Wi-Fi connectivity, it transmits data into the cloud. With low-energy Bluetooth it connects to the xCell Professor, which is used in mine areas where Wi-Fi is not available. The xCell Professor is mounted within mine vehicles and allows collection of data at drive-by speeds up to 30 km/h.

The system was tested, and convergence measurements are reported in this paper. Tests showed that ground movement was measured accurately, and data collection was efficient and effortless with entirely unmanned and automatic operation.