The trial operation of the room and pillar method has been implemented at the shaft protective pillar of CSM coal mine, Czech Republic. Mining depth of the room and pillar trial ranged from 700 to 900 metres, being perhaps the deepest room and pillar coal mining in the world. An extensive monitoring system was implemented to measure the load profile across the coal pillars and the deformation characteristics in the pillars during mining. Stress-deformation monitoring was essential as this was the first application of the conventional room and pillar mining method within the Upper Silesian Coal Basin mines. The results of stress-deformation monitoring allowed pillar loading, yielding characteristics and coal pillar stability to be described. This data and other analyses are essential for establishing procedures for a safe room and pillar method of mining within the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. The results are also important for global mining, as many coal producers will reach higher mining depth in the near future.