National Energy Resources Australia (NERA), in association with Accenture, have completed the Australian Coal Industry Competitiveness Assessment (ICA), including an Industry Competitiveness Framework (ICF) and Industry Competitiveness Score (ICS). The score provides NERA with a data-driven analysis of how to effectively allocate and direct their resources to deliver maximum industry impact. It also delivers a baseline against which the industry can measure its performance in future releases. This report outlines the methodology utilised and the results and insights gained from the ICS. The ICS provides a comprehensive, data-driven assessment of the Australian coal industry from a global viewpoint. The results identify numerous areas for more rigorous study and suggest a number of innovative and collaborative improvements that, if implemented, will have a significant impact on overall industry competitiveness. NERA has a role in helping to increase engagement across the industry on a national level to ultimately deliver greater value for the nation. In future years, the ICS will provide a solid baseline against which the industry can measure improvement.