Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date


Publication Details

David William Evans, Improved Roofbolting Methodologies: Reducing Hydraulic Fracture of Strata, 15th Coal Operators' Conference, University of Wollongong, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and Mine Managers Association of Australia, 2015, 128-136.


Induced hydraulic fracture of strata during roof bolt installation is a potentially prevalent, but masked phenomenon within the underground coal industry. Previously reported resin testing programs (McTyre et al., 2014) examined the relationship between resin mixing effectiveness and varying bore hole diameter. The methodology employed within this earlier test program facilitated a further critical area of research – the measurement of back pressures generated within the bore hole during standard rock bolt installation practices. Experimental data has indicated that fluid resin can be pressurised to levels where it exceeds the compressive strength of the strata, inducing hydraulic fracture within the immediate area of the bolting horizon. The routine cycle of roof bolting serves to propagate this effect, progressively fracturing and delaminating the roof during mine advancement. This masked phenomenon can lead to a perception of difficult ground conditions - mining efficiencies and costs are therefore affected, with increased need for additional support subsequently required to re-stabilise the inadvertently damaged roof.

Further analysis of the parameters associated with resin bolt installation has now been conducted, assisting in the development of an empirical relationship between bore hole pressure, bore hole diameter and bolt insertion times. This relationship has been analysed for 15:1 ratio resins and 2:1 ratio resins, within 28 mm and 30 mm boreholes. Further to this, load transfer performance has been comparatively assessed for both 28 mm and 30 mm boreholes, suggesting that for 2:1 resins, acceptable resin mixing and load transfer can be obtained within a 30 mm bore hole. The combination of 2:1 resins, utilised within a 30 mm bore hole, may well provide the optimal solution to reduce the risk of hydraulic fracture in weaker strata during resin bolt installation.