Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date


Publication Details

C. Cao, J. Nemcik, N. Aziz and T. Ren, Failure modes of rockbolting, 12th Coal Operators' Confernce, University of Wollongong & the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2012, 137-153.


Rock bolting has advanced rapidly during the past four decades due to a better understanding of load transfer mechanisms and advances made in the bolt system technology. Bolts are used as permanent and temporary support systems in tunnelling and mining operations. A review of reinforcement devices has indicated that three classes have evolved as part of rockbolt and ground anchor while the rock is not generally thought of as being a component of the reinforcement system. A classification of rockbolting reinforcement systems is presented, followed by the fundamental theory of the load transfer mechanism. Finally, various failure modes of rockbolting systems are discussed.