A three dimensional framework for analysing female entrepreneurs in Kerala, India
This paper examines the challenges faced by female entrepreneurs. Instead of rehearsing the arguments presented in other studies, this research transcends previous studies by examining the micro, meso (government) and the macro (culture) environments. This study draws on 151 female entrepreneurs surveyed in the state of Kerala, India. Twenty-one barriers were developed after reviewing the literature review. The barriers faced by female entrepreneurs were collected in a seven point Likert scale. Results show that lower caste female entrepreneurs had significantly higher probability of encountering difficulties in accessing finance (p value = 0.011), attracting customers (p value = 0.027) and accessing raw materials (p=0.000). This highlights the connection between micro and macro environments. Subsequently, the analysis also reveals significant relation between government support and family (relatives - p value 0.016 and husband - p value 0.007), which are the micro and meso environments. Further, the paper highlights the association between family and government support which could suggest possible corruption or even nepotism in government departments.