Interdependencies of Internal Migration, Urbanization, Poverty, and Inequality: The Case of Urban India
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In India, the number of metropolitan cities with a population of around 1 million people and above has increased from 35 in 2001 to 53 in 2011. Around 43% of the urban population resides in metropolitan cities.2 By 2030, the urban population of India is predicted to increase by a total of 163 million, relative to an increase in the rural population by 30.9 million (UN DESA 2014). Unplanned growth in the urban population tends to put pressure on regional/urban disparities and the rapidly increasing slum-dwelling population. In 2011-2012, the headcount ratio (HCR) based on US$ 1.90 per person per day for India is around 21.3%, and the total number of people under this poverty line is 260 million. The urban Gini index increased by nearly 5 points from 34.3 to 39.1, and the urban mean log deviation (MLD) index increased by over 6 points from 19.3 to 25.5 during 1993-1994 to 2011-2012 (World Bank 2015a, b). The figures show a rapid increase in urban poverty and inequality.
Wilson, E., Jayanthakumaran, K. & Verma, R. (2019). Interdependencies of Internal Migration, Urbanization, Poverty, and Inequality: The Case of Urban India. In K. Jayanthakumaran, R. Verma, G. Wan & E. Wilson (Eds.), Internal Migration, Urbanization and Poverty in Asia: Dynamics and Interrelationships (pp. 109-131). Singapore: Springer.