2020 The Authors The oceans are facing a catastrophic decline in biodiversity. States are now in the final stage of negotiations for an implementing agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to fill governance gaps for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction. This paper outlines the apparent areas of convergence and divergence between States on the 2019 draft treaty text. It outlines the contributions of the articles in this Special Issue "Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ) Treaty: the Final Stage of Negotiations", which offer suggestions for breaking negotiation deadlocks and practical ideas for transformative governance change. As States prepare for the postponed fourth and final (planned) negotiating session, we hope that this Special Issue will offer a useful tool for decision-makers and other stakeholders by offering creative ideas for BBNJ governance and for reaching timely agreement on the BBNJ treaty text.