Prospects for multi-level governance of maritime security in the Sulu-Celebes Sea: lessons from the Baltic Sea region
2020, 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This paper assesses the prospects for the implementation of multi-level governance of maritime security in the Sulu-Celebes Sea Tri-Border Area, noting the interdependencies within its terrestrial-maritime environments. It draws on the lessons of multi-level governance practices in the Baltic Sea region. A multi-level governance framework of maritime security in the Baltic Sea region is elaborated to identify the key characteristics of multi-level governance that are important prerequisites for an integrated (land-sea) nexus in maritime security management. Through the examination of the functionality of these characteristics in the Sulu-Celebes Sea, the paper discusses the implications of the existence, and or the lack, of these main characteristics of a functional multi-level governance and assesses the prospects of such governance within the Sulu-Celebes Sea. The 'common seas' nature of the semi-enclosed sea and the entanglement of transboundary, land-maritime dimensions of the maritime security challenges imply the need for a distinct form of governance, for which the Baltic Sea region can provide lessons learnt.