The experience of emotion is shaped by identity, not least gender, race and class. Many cultures produced rules or ideals for the expression and experience of emotion that were informed by identity – thus twentieth-century men in the West were expected to be stoic, women more expressive of emotion. At particular times, certain social groups were denied a full range of emotional expression; stereotypes of the ‘happy slave’ were underpinned by racist beliefs about Africans as less sensitive to violence and less desirous of independence. This chapter explores how ideas about identity intersected with emotion, highlighting a range of ideas, beliefs and social practices across time and place. It particularly highlights ‘intersectional’ identities, where identities combined to produce complex selves and emotions.