Social defence: a revolutionary agenda



Publication Details

Martin, B. (2020). Social defence: a revolutionary agenda. In R. Jackson, J. Llewellyn, G. Manawaroa Leonard, A. Gnoth & T. Karena (Eds.), Revolutionary Nonviolence: Concepts, Cases and Controversies (pp. 81-92). London: Zed Books Ltd.


Despite the recent upsurge in the use of and interest in nonviolent action, there has been little progress in transforming military systems. One important option is social defence, which is nonviolent community resistance to aggression as an alternative to military defence. Introducing a social defence system would have major implications for training, workplaces, communications, infrastructure and much else. Furthermore, social defence offers an agenda for citizen empowerment that can be used to help guide campaigns in the direction of revolutionary grassroots empowerment.

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