Implicit bias, stereotype threat, and seeing‐as: An alternative to "alief” as an explanation of reason‐recalcitrant behaviours
This paper examines the puzzling phenomenon of self‐directed implicit bias in the form of gender “stereotype threat” (ST). Bringing to light the empirical undecidability of which account of this phenomenon is best, whether a rational or an associationist explanation, the paper aims to strengthen the associationist approach by appeal to a new account of seeing‐as experiences. I critically examine “alief” accounts of reason‐recalcitrant ST by bringing to bear arguments from the philosophy of emotion. The new account builds on the insights and overcomes the weaknesses of “aliefs” by (a) employing associations that are imaginative and unreliable; and (b) proposing non‐conceptual seeing‐as experiences.