Accuracy of perceived swimming competence and enjoyment in girls: a developmental study
Positive achievement behaviours are fostered by high perceived physical competence (PPC) (Harter, 1981, Symposia on Child Psychology, 14, 215-254), while children with high PPC are more likely to sustain interest in the task (Duda, 1987', Journal of Sport Psychology, 9, 130-145). Weiss (1987, Advances in Pediatric Sport Sciences, Vol. 2, pp. 87-119. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics) revealed that enjoyment was related to level of PPC. Scanlan and Lewthwaite (1986, Journal of Sport Psychology, 8, 25-35) measured enjoyment in young male wrestlers and found a positive relationship between enjoyment and participation, but a reduction in enjoyment with age. Little empirical work has focused on the accuracy of PPC (Weiss et al., 1990, Research Quarterly, 3, 250-258), although changes from overestimation to underestimation are acknowledged as normal developmental processes. This study addressed the hypothesis that increasing accuracy of PPC would be related to increased levels of enjoyment for girls in swimming lessons, but that there would be age differences in both accuracy and enjoyment.