In recent decades there has been a great expansion in the number, size and influence of International Non-Governmental Organisations involved in international relief and development (henceforth simply 'INGOs'). These changes have led to increased scrutiny of such organisations, and this scrutiny, together with increasing reflection by INGOs themselves and their staff on their own practice, has helped to highlight a number of pressing ethical questions such organisations face. Should they attempt to provide emergency assistance even when doing so risks helping to fuel further conflict, for example? How should they manage any differences between their values and those of the people they seek to benefit? How open and honest should they be about their own uncertainties and failures?