The variation of Mn-dopant distribution state with x and its effect on the magnetic coupling mechanism in Zn1-xMnxO nanocrystals
Zn1-xMnxO (x = 0.0005, 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02) nanocrystals are synthesized by a wet chemical route. The coordination environment of Mn is characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectra, and X-ray absorption fine structure. It is found that the solubility of substitutional Mn in ZnO lattice is very low, which is less than 0.4%. Mn ions are first to dissolve into the substitutional sites in ZnO lattice, thereby forming Mn2+O4 tetrahedral coordination when x 0.001, then entering into the interstitial sites and forming Mn3+O6 octahedral coordination when x 0.005. All the samples exhibit paramagnetic behaviors at room temperature, and antiferromagnetic coupling can be observed below 100 K.