Actuated pins for braille displays



Publication Details

Spinks, G. Maxwell. & Wallace, G. G. (2009). Actuated pins for braille displays. In F. Carpi & E. Smela (Eds.), Biomedical Applications of Electroactive Polymer Actuators (pp. 265-278). United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons.


The display of information on a screen is the single biggest barrier to visually impaired people accessing information. The prevalence of computer based displays and the popularity of the internet highlight the magnitude of the problem. It is estimated that the vision-impaired population of the USA is 2.5 million - a huge number of people who are largely left out of the 'internet revolution' and the associated employment, educational and recreational opportunities. There is tremendous need to develop a computer screen for visually impaired people that provide the same information that visual displays give to the sighted. A refreshable, two-dimensional Braille screen offers a type of 'graphical user interface' for visually impaired people to use with computers.

Grant Number


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