Potassium Nickel Iron Hexacyanoferrate as Ultra-Long-Life Cathode Material for Potassium-Ion Batteries with High Energy Density
The abundant reserve and low price of potassium resources promote K-ion batteries (KIBs) becoming a promising alternative to Li-ion batteries, while the large ionic radius of K-ions creates a formidable challenge for developing suitable electrodes. Here Ni-substituted Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) are investigated comprehensively as cathodes for KIBs. The synthesized K1.90Ni0.5Fe0.5[Fe(CN)6]0.89·0.42H2O (KNFHCF-1/2) takes advantage of the merits of high capacity from electrochemically active Fe-ions, outstanding electrochemical kinetics induced by decreased band gap and K-ion diffusion activation energy, and admirable structure stability from inert Ni-ions. Therefore, a high first capacity of 81.6 mAh·g-1 at 10 mA·g-1, an excellent rate property (53.4 mAh·g-1 at 500 mA·g-1), and a long-term lifespan over 1000 cycles with the lowest fading rate of 0.0177% per cycle at 100 mA·g-1 can be achieved for KNFHCF-1/2. The K-ion intercalation/deintercalation proceeds through a facile solid solution mechanism, allowing 1.5-electron transfer based on low- and high-spins FeII/FeIII couples, which is verified by ex situ XRD, XPS, and DFT calculations. The K-ion full battery is also demonstrated using a graphite anode with a high energy density of 282.7 Wh·kg-1. This work may promote more studies on PBA electrodes and accelerate the development of KIBs.