Biomolecular Piezoelectric Materials: From Amino Acids to Living Tissues
2020 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Biomolecular piezoelectric materials are considered a strong candidate material for biomedical applications due to their robust piezoelectricity, biocompatibility, and low dielectric property. The electric field has been found to affect tissue development and regeneration, and the piezoelectric properties of biological materials in the human body are known to provide electric fields by pressure. Therefore, great attention has been paid to the understanding of piezoelectricity in biological tissues and its building blocks. The aim herein is to describe the principle of piezoelectricity in biological materials from the very basic building blocks (i.e., amino acids, peptides, proteins, etc.) to highly organized tissues (i.e., bones, skin, etc.). Research progress on the piezoelectricity within various biological materials is summarized, including amino acids, peptides, proteins, and tissues. The mechanisms and origin of piezoelectricity within various biological materials are also covered.