Surface and Interface Engineering: Molybdenum Carbide-Based Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion
Molybdenum carbide (MoxC)-based nanomaterials have shown competitive performances for energy conversion applications based on their unique physicochemical properties. A large surface area and proper surface atomic configuration are essential to explore potentiality of MoxC in electrochemical applications. Although considerable efforts are made on the development of advanced MoxC-based catalysts for energy conversion with high efficiency and stability, some urgent issues, such as low electronic conductivity, low catalytic efficiency, and structural instability, have to be resolved in accordance with their application environments. Surface and interface engineering have shown bright prospects to construct highly efficient MoxC-based electrocatalysts for energy conversion including the hydrogen evolution reaction, oxygen evolution reaction, nitrogen reduction reaction, and carbon dioxide reduction reaction. In this Review, the recent progresses in terms of surface and interface engineering of MoxC-based electrocatalytic materials are summarized, including the increased number of active sites by decreasing the particle size or introducing porous or hierarchical structures and surface modification by introducing heteroatom(s), defects, carbon materials, and others electronic conductive species. Finally, the challenges and prospects for energy conversion on MoxC-based nanomaterials are discussed in terms of key performance parameters for the catalytic performance.