Sodium-Ion Batteries: From Academic Research to Practical Commercialization
Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as the most promising can-didate for large-scale energy storage system owing to the economic efficiency resulting from abundant sodium resources, superior safety, and similar chem-ical properties to the commercial lithium-ion battery. Despite the long period of academic research, how to realize sodium-ion battery commercialization for market applications is still a great challenge. Thus, from the perspective of future practical application, this review will identify the factors that are restricting commercialization, and evaluate the existing active materials and sodium-ion-based full-cell system. The design and development trends that are needed for SIBs to meet the requirements of practical applications in large-scale energy storage will also be discussed in detail.