Review of high temperature piezoelectric materials, devices, and applications
Piezoelectric functional materials have been extensively studied and employed in numerous devices. With the rapid development of modern industries, such as power plants, aerospace, automotive, renewable energy and material processing industries, the high temperature piezoelectric materials that can work in extreme environments are in great demand. Piezoelectric materials including piezoelectric single crystals, ceramics and films, are at the heart of electromechanical actuation and sensing devices. A variety of applications where piezoelectric actuators and sensors operate at elevated temperatures (T > 200C) would be extremely desired. The actuators need to work efficiently with high strokes, torques, and forces while operating under relatively harsh conditions. These include high-temperature fans and turbines, motors for valves or natural gas industries, kiln automation, and actuators for automotive engines such as fuel injectors and cooling system elements. Yet, the majority of industrial actuator applications are at or below the 250℃ temperature limit. In addition to the increase in operational temperatures of piezoelectric motors and actuators, a future area of interest is high-temperature MEMS research, which can be used for high-temperature valving. On the other hand, the piezoelectric sensors have been widely used for structural health monitoring applications. This is due to their wide bandwidth, versatility, simplicity, high rigidity, high stability, high reproducibility, fast response time, wide operating temperature range, insensitivity to electric and magnetic fields, the capacity for miniaturization and minimal dependence on moving parts and low power consumption, and wide piezoelectric materials and mechanisms selections, which will greatly benefit the sensing applications. In addition to the temperature usage range, the piezoelectric sensors must withstand the harsh environments encountered in space, engine, power plants, and also need to possess high sensitivity, resistivity, reliability, stability and robustness. In order to use the piezoelectric materials for a specific high temperature application, many aspects need to be stability, electrical resistivity, and the stability of properties at elevated temperature. In this paper, ferroelectric materials with high Curie point, including perovskite-type ferroelectrics, bismuth layer structured ferroelectrics, tungsten-bronze structured ferroelectrics, together with non-ferroelectric piezoelectric single crystals, are surveyed. The crystal structure characteristics, high temperature piezoelectric properties, and recent research progress are discussed. A series of high temperature piezoelectric devices and their applications are reviewed, including high temperature piezoelectric detectors, sensors, transducers, actuators, etc. Finally, recent important research topics, the future development of high temperature piezoelectric materials and the potential new applications are summarized.