Realization of Strained Stanene by Interface Engineering
Stanene, the tin analogue of graphene, has been predicted to be a two-dimensional topological insulator, providing an ideal platform for the realization of the quantum spin Hall effect even at room temperature. Here, continuous stanene has been successfully formed on the Au(111) substrate, and its crystalline structure, phonon properties, and electronic structures are investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and in situ Raman spectroscopy combined with first-principles calculations. The surface Sn-Au alloy with a coverage-dependent structural evolution is first identified. At coverage above a critical value, the Au-Sn alloy is gradually converted into epitaxial stanene with a âš3 x âš7 superstructure. Distinctive vibrational phonon modes are discovered in âš3 x âš7 stanene through in situ Raman spectroscopy, which are correlated with the tensile strain evoked by its singular buckled structure. Our results present clear evidence for the existence of epitaxial stanene and provide a platform for exploration of the exotic properties of this strained two-dimensional material.