Graphene-based materials represent advanced platforms for tissue engineering and implantable medical devices. From a clinical standpoint, it is essential that these materials are produced using non-toxic and non-hazardous methods, and have predictable properties and reliable performance under variable physiological conditions; especially when used with a cellular component. Here we describe such a biomaterial, namely smart graphene-cellulose (G-C) paper, and its suitability for traditional planar two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) human cell support, verified by adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) culture and osteogenic differentiation. G-C paper is prepared using commercially available cellulose tissue paper as a substrate that is coated by immersion-deposition with graphene oxide (GO) followed by reduction to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) without the use of toxic organic solvents. The fabrication process is amenable to large scale production and the resultant papers have low electrical resistivity (up to ∼300 Ω/sq). Importantly, G-C papers can be configured to 3D constructs by lamination with alginate and further modified by folding and rolling for 3D "origami-inspired" cell-laden structures.
Available for download on Monday, December 14, 2020