Poling-free energy harvesters based on robust self-poled ferroelectric fibers
Self-poling has been found in many two-dimensional epitaxial ferroelectric nanofilms originating from epitaxial growth clamping and has become a new research focus due to its potential applications in designing new types of ferroelectric devices. However, self-poling ferroelectrics based on internal strain gradients rather than external stimuli still do not exist. Here, we demonstrate a novel and unique design for one-dimensional structures and geometries in microscale with robust upward flexoelectric self-poling created by the application of electrospun ferroelectric fibers on a patterned substrate to introduce curving structure arises from the uneven substrate and confinement by other fibers in space. The fiber textile composed of these curving structures could resist external electric field and temperature, and can be fabricated into high performance poling-free flexible nanogenerators with outputs comparable to the poled ones. These results are conducive to providing a potential solution to the depolarization problem, to simplifying the technologies for manufacturing piezoelectric nanogenerators by avoiding the application of electric field for poling, and to providing extra freedom in controlling ferroelectric polarization and designing new types of devices.