Mono and di-substituted BODIPY with electron donating carbazole, thiophene, and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene units
In an effort to extend the conjugation system of boron-dipyrrin (BODIPY), the dye was coupled with polymerisable units of carbazole, alkylthiophene, and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT). Due to electron donating character of the units connected to the strong electron accepting segment of tri-coordinated boron, the optical and electrochemical properties of the dye changed, and followed the strength of the electron donating substituent. All studied compounds exhibited electroactivity in both anodic and cathodic potential ranges, however, electropolymerisation was only observed for BODIPY modified with EDOT, leading to trimeric and tetrameric substituents. Potential controlled optical changes (spectroelectrochemistry) and in situ spin density distribution measurements, supported by quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory, were undertaken in order to understand the reversibility of the electrochemical processes. Hyperfine split ESR spectra of the radical anion species were successfully modelled revealing intriguing, hyperconjugation type unpaired spin delocalisation patterns.