Inhibition of smooth muscle cell adhesion and proliferation on heparin-doped polypyrrole
We have investigated the application of polypyrrole (pPy) as a material to influence neointimal cell behaviour. The physico-chemical properties of pPy doped with heparin (Hep), para-toluene sulfonate, poly(2-methoxyaniline-5-sulfonic acid) (pMAS) and nitrate ions were studied in addition to cell adhesion and proliferation studies of neointimal relevant cell lines cultured on the pPy substrates. Both smooth muscle (hSMC) and endothelial (hEC) cell types adhered and proliferated best on the smooth, hydrophilic pPy/pMAS material. Moreover, pPy/Hep is able to support the proliferation of hECs on the surface but inhibits hSMC proliferation after 4 days of culture. The inhibitory effect on hSMCs is most likely due to the well-known antiproliferative effect of heparin on hSMC growth. The results presented indicate that surface exposed heparin binds to the putative heparin receptor of hSMCs and is sufficient to inhibit proliferation. The application of galvanostatically synthesized pPy/Hep to stent surfaces presents a novel bioactive control mechanism to control neointimal cell growth.