The temperature-dependent piezoelectric and electromechanical properties of cobalt-modified sodium bismuth titanate
Lightly cobalt-modified, Aurivillius-type, sodium bismuth titanate (Na0.5Bi4.5Ti4O15, NBT) ceramics were synthesized by substituting a small amount of cobalt ions onto the Ti4+ sites using conventional solid-state reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis coupled with bond valence sum calculations show that the dopant cobalt ions substitute for Ti4+ ions in the form of Co3+. The resultant cobalt-modified NBT ceramics (NBT-Co) exhibit better piezoelectric and electromechanical properties by comparison with pure NBT. With only 0.3 wt% Co3+ substitution, the piezoelectric properties of the NBT-Co ceramics are optimal, exhibiting a high piezoelectric coefficient (d33~33 pC/N), a low dielectric loss tan δ (~0.1% at 1 kHz), a high thickness planar coupling coefficient (kt~34%) as well as a high Curie temperature (Tc~663 °C). Such NBT-Co ceramics exhibit nearly temperature-independent piezoelectric and electromechanical properties up to 400 °C, suggesting that these cobalt-modified NBT ceramics are promising materials for high temperature piezoelectric applications.