Two-dimensional (2D) materials have shown outstanding properties that make them the materials of choice for future semiconductor and flexible nanoelectronics. Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheet (BNNS) is one of the most studied 2D materials due to its extraordinary properties and potential applications. The synthesis of large, homogeneous, and few-layered BNNS, however, remains challenging. Among the various synthetic routes, chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is preferred on the grounds of its potential to yield large BNNS with controllable atomic layers and minimal contamination. We thus devote this review to the CVD growth of BNNS, and its characterization and applications. The recent progresses in the CVD growth of BNNS is firstly summarized from the aspects of precursors, substrates, growth mechanisms, and transfer techniques. This review then moves on to the characterization of few-atomic-layered h-BN sheets, covering a variety of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques that have proved useful for assessing the quality of BNNS. The applications of the BNNS are also summarized. This review is expected to instigate new methods and improvements in relation to the CVD growth of BNNS, which has enabled exceptional performance as a key component of nanoscale electronics.