The storage degradation of an 18650 commercial cell studied using neutron powder diffraction
Commercial 18650 lithium ion cells containing a blended positive electrode of layered LiNi 0.5 Mn 0.3 Co 0.2 O 2 and spinel Li 1.1 Mn 1.9 O 4 alongside a graphite negative electrode were stored at various depth-of-discharge (DoD) at 60 °C for 1, 2, 4, and 6 months. After storage, the cells were cycled at C/25 at 25 °C between 2.75 and 4.2 V for capacity determination and incremental capacity analysis (ICA). In addition to ICA analysis, the mechanism for capacity fade was investigated by combining the results of neutron powder diffraction under in-situ and operando conditions, in conjunction with post-mortem studies of the electrodes using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Among the cells, those stored at 25% DoD suffered the highest capacity fade due to their higher losses of active Li, NMC, and LMO than cells stored at other DoD. The cells stored at 0% DoD shows second high capacity fade because they exhibit the highest of active LMO and graphite anode among the stored cells and higher losses of active Li and NMC than cells stored at 50% DoD.