Publication Details

Hamilton, C., Alici, G., Spinks, G. & in het Panhuis, M. (2017). The Suitability of 3-D Printed Eutectic Gallium-Indium Alloy as a Heating Element for Thermally Active Hydrogels. MRS Advances, 2 (6), 335-340.


We report the use of a novel extrusion tip that allows for the omnidirectional printing of eutectic gallium-indium (eGaIn) alloy onto the surface of hydrogel materials into complex 2-dimensional patterns. The use of these printed soft "wires" as an electrothermal heating element for soft robotics purposes was explored. Heating of the eGaIn structures encapsulated in an alginate/acrylamide ionic-covalent entanglement hydrogel was measured by a thermal imaging camera. It was determined that eGaIn is a suitable material for use in future soft robotics applications as an electrothermal heating element to actuate thermally responsive N-isoproylacrylamide hydrogels.

Grant Number


Available for download on Saturday, December 15, 2018