In Situ Electrochemistry of Rechargeable Battery Materials: Status Report and Perspectives
The development of rechargeable batteries with high performance is consid-ered to be a feasible way to satisfy the increasing needs of electric vehicles and portable devices. It is of vital importance to design electrodes with high electro-chemical performance and to understand the nature of the electrode/electrolyte interfaces during battery operation, which allows a direct observation of the complicated chemical and physical processes within the electrodes and electro-lyte, and thus provides real-time information for further design and optimiza-tion of the battery performance. Here, the recent progress in in situ techniques employed for the investigations of material structural evolutions is described, including characterization using neutrons, X-ray diffraction, and nuclear magnetic resonance. In situ techniques utilized for in-depth uncovering the electrode/electrolyte phase/interface change mechanisms are then highlighted, including transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The real-time monitoring of lithium dendrite growth and in situ detection of gas evolution during charge/discharge processes are also discussed. Finally, the major challenges and opportunities of in situ characterization techniques are outlined toward new developments of rechargeable batteries, including innovation in the design of compatible in situ cells, applications of dynamic analysis, and in situ electrochemistry under multi-stimuli. A clear and in-depth understanding of in situ technique applica-tions and the mechanisms of structural evolutions, surface/interface changes, and gas generations within rechargeable batteries is given here.